Callicera rufa Schummel, 1842
Biology & ecology:
The larva occurs in rot-holes between bifurcating branches and in wet holes at the surface of stumps of Scots Pine Pinus sylvestris (and also Larch Larix sp., MacGowan, 1994). Adults are hardly ever seen, but when found are usually females searching for oviposition sites on pine trunks and stumps. Experiments have shown that rot-holes created artificially by cutting into pine trunks with a chain-saw are utilised readily and can be occupied within a few months.
Caledonian pine forests across the Scottish Highlands although records extend south to the Perth area. This species has been the subject of detailed studies by the Malloch Society that have shown C. rufa to occur in the majority of locations in northern Scotland where ancient Scots Pine Pinus sylvestris occurs. Recent evidence suggests that this species has extended its range in response to new habitat created by felling of conifer plantations and there is increaing evidence of populations at a number of locations across the English Midlands and into Norfolk.